Materials

Metals involved:
REE (Eu, Tb, Y, Ce, Gd, La); Niobium, Molybdenum, Cobalt, Tungsten, Manganese, Zirconium, Antimony, Rhenium, Scandium. 

Perspectives:
  • Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) by 2020 p.a. 
  • Industrial Robotics  ~11%
  • High strength steel  ~8%
  • Global Construction  ~4%



Energy

Metals involved:
Rare Earth (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Y); Lithium, Cobalt, Nickel, Lead, Gallium, Indium, Carbon (graphite), Vanadium

Perspectives
  • German parliament has voted to ban the sale of petrol and diesel vehicles from 2030. 
  •  The
  • Wind provides the largest contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (wind, solar thermal, solar PV, geothermal)

  • Wind supplies 3.3% of today Electricity Generation (TEG) rising 15% TEG in 2020, to 22% TEG in 2030.

  • Energy storage is set to grow 40 % per year in developing markets, says a team of researchers at the World Bank Group. 

  • The International Energy Agency estimates that by 2020 developing countries will need to double their electrical power output to meet rising demand

Transport

Metals involved: 
Rare Earths (Nd, Pr, Dy, Tb, Sm); Titanium, Lithium, Cobalt, Carbon (graphite) 

Perspectives
  • German parliament has voted to ban the sale of petrol and diesel vehicles from 2030. 
  •  The US fuel efficiency standard 70 g/CO2 per km in 2025 can only be achieved by hybrids from today's perspective.  
  •  Tank-to-wheel efficiency is ~16% in a combustion engine, versus ~70% in an electric motor.
  •  Airbus Group and Siemens signed a MOU to cooperate in the development of hybrid electric propulsion aircraft. 
  •  Pop up : passenger capsule in carbon fibre and battery powered..

Technologies

Metals involved:
Gallium, Tantalum, Germanium, Hafnium, Indium; Rare Earths (Nd, Y, Dy, Tb) 


Perspectives
  • Flexible Electronics Market is projected to an annual growth rate of ~20% to reach a total market size of US$17  billion by 2021.
  • Flexible electronic devices are ultrathin, lightweight, compact, power-efficient, and have low heat emissions.
  • In 2015, a cancer patient gets a 3D-printed Titanium Rib Cage at the Salamanca University hospital in Spain.